In this article, we summarised what the Nobel prize is about, its procedures, the Winner of this year’s Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology and also some controversies around it. Let’s dive in!
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The Nobel prize is an international award organised by the Nobel Foundation in Stockholm, Sweden, Based on Alfred Nobel, a Swedish inventor and businessman. It is frequently cited as the world’s most distinguished honour for intellectual achievement.
A Brief History On How The Nobel Prize was Established
On the 21st of October 1833, Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm, Sweden. He grew up in Russia, studied chemistry and technology in France and the US, and established the Nobel Prizes – for the most significant benefit to humankind.
He died in 1896, and according to his will drafted in 1895, he instructed that most of his fortunes be set-aside as a fund for the awarding of five annual prizes to individuals, who during the preceding year shall have conferred the greatest benefits on mankind.These prizes, as established by his will, became known as the Nobel prizes, which were first awarded in 1901.
What Nobel Prize Categories are There?
The Nobel prizes include the Nobel Prize for Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace (Nobel characterised the Peace Prize as “to the person who has done the most or best to advance fellowship among nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and the establishment and promotion of peace congresses) The prize ceremonies take place annually. Each recipient (known as a “laureate”) receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a monetary award.
The esteem of the Nobel Prize stems partly from the considerable research into the selection of the prizewinners. Although the winners are announced between October and November, the selection process starts in the early autumn of the preceding year, when the Prize-awarding institution invites scholars to propose or nominate candidates for the prizes, followed by the selection of the laureates qualifying for the bonuses in each field by a significant vote.
Who is Qualified to Receive this Prestigious Award
The Nobel prize is usually awarded to individuals, except for the peace prize, which can be awarded to institutions. One person may receive the entire Nobel Prize, two people may share it equally, or three people may each receive one.
In the latter scenario, each of the three winners may earn a third of the award, or two winners may each receive half of the amount. When a reward is neither granted nor reserved, it is sometimes deferred until the following year. If it is not awarded at the time, the money is returned to the funds.
Do You Have to Accept a Nobel Prize if You Win ?
The recipients of some awards have refused to accept them, and in some cases, governments have forbidden their citizens from receiving them. Those who decline the award are shown as “declined prize”on the list of Nobel laureates. Although there are many possible reasons for nonacceptance, external pressure has typically been the culprit.
For instance, Adolf Hitler barred Germans from receiving Nobel Prizes in the future in 1937 because he was upset that the 1935 Peace Prize had been given to anti-Nazi journalist Carl von Ossietzky, who was incarcerated in Germany at the time.
In a few instances, the refuser was given the Nobel gold medal and the diploma but not the money, which invariably reverts to the funds after a set amount of time. Instead, they later disclosed the valid reason for their denial.
Early on, the awards usually recognised recent discoveries. Nonetheless, some of those earlier discoveries were later discredited. For instance, Johannes Fibiger allegedly discovered a parasite that caused cancer and received the 1926 Prize in Physiology or Medicine as a result, but this prize was eventually discredited.
To avoid embarrassment, the awards increasingly recognised scientific discoveries that had withstood the test of time. According to Ralf Pettersson, former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine, “the criterion ‘the previous year’ is interpreted by the Nobel Assembly as the year when the full impact of the discovery has become evident”.
All but the Nobel Peace Prizes are presented in Stockholm, Sweden, at the annual prize award ceremony. Their prizes would be given to them on the 10th of December, the anniversary of Nobels death. Afterwards, the award ceremony is a banquet followed by the Nobel lecture.
Who are the Awardees of This Years Nobel Prize Award?
The 2022 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to Svante Pääbo for his discoveries concerning the genomes of extinct hominins and human evolution. He is an expert in the study of evolutionary genetics. He was one of the pioneers of paleogenetics and put a lot of effort into understanding Neanderthal DNA.
The history of humanity has always piqued interest. What is our history, and what connections do we have to those who came before us? What distinguishes Homo sapiens from other hominins? Pääbos seminal research gave rise to an entirely new scientific discipline; paleogenomics(a field of science based on reconstructing and analysing genomic information in extinct species).
By revealing genetic differences that distinguish all living humans from extinct hominins, his discoveries provide the basis for exploring what makes us uniquely human. Even though the Nobel Prize is generally considered a great honour, two winners have intentionally renounced the distinction.
More People Who Turned Down The Prize Award
Jean-Paul Sarte refused all official awards, and turned down the 1964 Literature prize. And Le Duc Tho, who, with Henry Kissinger in 1974, shared the prize for peace for their efforts to end the Vietnam War, rebuffed it and claimed that “peace has not yet been established.”
As mentioned earlier, some individuals turned down the award based on the political decree. Such was the case of Boris Pasternak, the author of Dr. Zhivago, who, on the 23rd of October 1958, was forced by the Soviet government to reject the honour. However, his family could accept it in his name in 1988 but not the prize amount.
More so,the Nobel prize award isnt gender-based; it is also given to women who, through their excellent works, have impacted their field of influence. Of such is Gerty Cori, the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1947 for elucidating glucose metabolism essential in many aspects of medicine, including the treatment of diabetes.
The Nobel Prize Award has come to stay, and Alfred Nobel left a remarkable legacy in the print of time. In the words of Abhijit Naskar, “It’s not the awards and prizes that add value to one’s work; it’s the work that adds value to the awards and prizes.The Nobel Award has been doing well in recognising people making their quota to develop Humanity and Science.
This article was written by Oluwadunni Afolabi, and jointly edited for readability by the writer and Oluwasemilore Olalere